Figures of Speech - 3
अलंकार - 3
This group of figures of speech brings together all those that represent association.
इस समूह में उन अनंकारों को सम्मेलित किया जाता है जो सम्बंधता दर्शाते हैं.

Metonymy (मिटोनिमी)
Metonymy means a change of name. In a metonymy an object is referred to by the name of something with which it is generally associated.
मिटोनिमी का मतलब होता है नाम बदलना. इस अलंकार के तहत किसी को ऐसे वस्तु के नाम से पुकारा जाता है जिससे वह सम्बंधित हो.

For e.g.उदाहरण के लिये
  1. The Bench
    - is used for the judges.
  2. We are reading Shakespear.
    - where Shakespear refers to the works of Shakespear.
  3. The city sleeps.
    - where city refers to the people of the city.


Synecdoche
Here a part is used to represent the full or the full is used to represent a part.
यहाँ एक हिस्से से पूरे को दर्शाया जाता है या पूरे से एक भाग तो दर्शाया जाता है.

For e.g.उदाहरण के लिये
  1. I work to earn my bread.
    - (bread represents food.)
  2. England lost the match against India.
    - (England and India represent the respective cricket teams of the two countries.)
  3. He has many mouths to feed.
    - (mouths refers to the people that are depended on him.)

Transferred Epithet
Epithet is the adjective that describes some object or person. In this figure of speech the epithet (adjective) is transferred from its proper word to some other word that is closely associated with it in the sentence.
Epithet का अर्थ होता है विशेषण और इस अलंकार में Epithet को स्थानांत्रित (transfer) किया जाता है. इस अलंकार में विशेषण को अपने सही शब्द की जगह पर किसी अन्य ऐसे शब्द के साथ जोड़ा जाता है जो उस वाक्य में उस सही शब्द से जुड़ा हो.

For e.g.उदाहरण के लिये
  1. He spent a sleepless night.
    - He was sleepless whereas it has been assoicated with night.