The Participle - पार्टीसिपल
(पूर्व कालिक क्रिया)

Participles are used to define the forms of the verbs for the continuous and perfect tenses. They are also used to qualify nouns or pronouns.
पार्टिसिपल से क्रिया के continous और perfect रूप बनाये जाते हैं. इनका उप्योग noun और pronoun के वर्णन के लिये भी किया जाता है.

The form of verb that has the characteristics of both a verb and an adjective is known as a participle.
पार्टिसिपल (participle) क्रिया का वह रूप जिसमें क्रिया (verb) और विशेषण (adjective) दोनों का ही स्वभाव मौजूद हो. इसी लिये इसे Verbal Adjective भी कहते हैं.

When a participle is used as a verb, it is accompanied with an auxiliary verb. The participle may be in continous form or the perfect form, and only when considered together with the auxiliary word, one can decide the tense it is being used in.
जब भी participle का क्रिया की तरह उपयोग किया जाता है उस के साथ auxiliary verb भी होता है. Participle का रूप अपूर्ण (continous) या पूर्ण (perfect) हो सकता है और इसके काल का आंकलन करने के लिये इसे auxiliary के साथ मिला कर देखा जाता है.

for eg.
Sheila is going home. Here the form of go (going) used also plays the roll of adjective for the noun home, while its use along with is denotes a present continous tense.
Kiran will be going home tomorrow. Here also a continous participle of go (going) is used with will be and this denotes an action in the future continous tense.

Based on the tense being used in the sentence, the participles have two forms... Present Participle and Past Participle.
वाक्य में प्रयुक्त काल के आधार पर participle के दो रूप होते हैं... present participle और past participle.

Present Participle
Present Participle is the form of the participle that indicates that the action in going on, or is incomplete or is imperfect. It is used in the present continous, past continous and future continous forms of the tenses.
Present Participle, participle का वह रूप है जिससे पता चलता है कि कार्य हो रहा है, या अपूर्ण है. इस रूप का उपयोग क्रियाओं के अपूर्ण वर्तमान, अपूर्ण भूत और अपूर्ण भविष्य कालों में किया जाता है.

for eg.
Sheila is going home. The forms going and carrying both indicate incomplete actions. The tense in the first sentence is present continous, while in the second is past continous.
The girl was carrying a basket of flowers.


Past Participle
Past Participle is the form of the participle that indicates that the action is completed. This is used in the perfect forms of the present, past and future tenses.

for eg.
Sheila has gone home. The forms gone and carried both completed actions. The tense in the first sentence is present perfect, while in the second is past perfect.
The girl had carried a basket of flowers.


Participle Adjectives - the form of the verb that is used to qualify a noun or a verb.

for eg.
The lying witness was punished by the judge. The forms lying and winning both add a description to the nouns that they precede.
The winning team received many prizes.





Pronouns of Verb Adverbs