Auxiliaries and Modals
ओक्ज़ीलयरिज़ और मोडल्स
Auxiliary Verbs


Often to complete the mood, tense or other information in a sentence a supporting verb is (or verbs are) used along with the main verb of sentence. These supporting or assiting verbs are known as Auxiliary verbs.
किसी वाक्ये के भाव (mood), काल (Tense), व्यक्ति (Person) और संख्या (Number) को सही और पूर्ण रूप से प्रस्तुत करने के लिए कई बार उस में verb के साथ एक या एक से अधिक auxiliary (सहायक) verbs का उपयोग करना आवश्यक हो जाता है.

जैसे...
had walked Observe the use of the words had, will, was and had been.
यहां had, will, was और had been पर गौर करें.

These are in assisting or auxiliary verbs. These are used in association with some main verb and used to express them in different tenses.
ये सभी शब्द auxiliary (सहायक) verbs की भूमिका निभा रहे हैं. इनका उपयोग किसी दूसरे main verb के साथ किया गया है. इनकी सहायता से main verb को अलग-अलग tense में पेश किया गया है.
will run
was calling
has been talking


Some verbs that are generaly used as auxiliary verbs are given below
कुछ verbs जो आम तौर पर auxiliary verbs के रूप में प्रयुक्त होते हैं निम्न हैं...

 
The Verb
Its forms
Example
1.
be
am, is, are, was, were, been, being
I am going to my friend's place.
2.
have
have, has, had
I had gone to there last week.
3.
shall
shall, should
I shall go home after some time.
4.
will
will, would
She will go to school tomorrow.
5.
do
do, does, done, did
He does not go anywhere.


Modal Verbs or Modals
Similarly, modal verbs are also like auxillary verbs. They are used with the main verb of the sentence to express permissions, possibility, certainty and necessity.
Auxillary verbs के जैसे ही modal verbs होते हैं. इन्हें भी वाक्य में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ उपयोग किया जाता है ताकि उसकी इजाजत, सम्भावना, निश्चितता और आवश्यक्ता व्यक्त किया जा सकता है.

The verbs that are used as modals include... can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought.
निम्न क्रियाओं को modals की तरह उपयोग कर सकते हैं - can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought.

These modals are also the defective verbs because they cannot be used in all moods and tenses. They do not have separate form in the third person singular and they do not have infinitive and -ing forms.
ये modals विकृत क्रियाएं होते हैं क्योंकी इन का उपयोग हर मूड या काल में नहीं किया जा सकता है. इन का third person singular में अलग रूप नहीं होता और ना ही इनका infinitive और -ing रूप होता है.

It may rain today. The use of may, can, ought and could in these examples demonstrates the use of modal verbs or modals.
इन उदाहरणों में may, can, ought और could को modal verb या modals की तरह उपयोग किया गया है.
Can you swim?
It is getting late. I ought to go home.
Be careful, you could hurt yourself.


Pronouns of Verb Adverbs